Technique One: Camera-less Animation

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What is Camera-less Animation?

Before internet, satellite dishes, DVDs, VHSs, and film (and all the other modes in-between and after)… there was Camera-less Animation. These were creative ways to pass the time watching animations that had not been shot with a camera to be projected later (like on a screen in a movie theatre).

One of the earliest of these was the THAUMATROPE:


This video also has a great explanation for how flipbooks work!



‘Customers Wanted’ -Popeye

How Does Animation Work?

Descending A Staircase

The following link opens a PDF of these fine folks’ update on the Myth of Persistence of Vision explaining why, ‘windmills do not work this way.’

Previous Debunking:

Great figures in film/animation history:

Charles Reynaud

Lumiere Brothers

Film stock!





Film = 24 fps (usually)
Video = 29.97 fps (round up to 30)

Old time ‘flickers’ ran at about 18 fps (depending on the artistry of the projectionist)

Netflix is derived from:

Net = Internet
flix = flickers

Shooting on 2’s and what the heck does that mean?
24 frames of film = 12 drawings, thus two frames per image = shooting on 2’s



Finish your flipbooks (aim for 50 drawings). Bring them next week. You will need them to learn (or get a refresher on) Dragonframe!